EMAZA α-β Arteether Injection 150mg/2ml


Composition, Description, Pharmacology, Pharmacokinetics, Clinical data, Indications, Contraindications, Dosage and administration, Overdosage, Precautions, Drug interactions, Adverse effects, Storage, Presentation, NAFDAC registration, Manufacturers and Exporters of Emaza α-β Arteether Injection Medicine for Malaria.

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Loxaprim Co-trimoxazole Trimethoprim and Sulphamethoxazole Tablets and Syrup Suspension







Loxaprim 480mg tablet contains 80mg of Trimethoprim BP and 400mg Sulphamethoxazole BP.

Each 5ml of Flavoured syrup suspension contains 40mg Trimethoprim BP and 200mg Sulphamethoxazole BP.



1. Respiratory Tract Infections: Otitis media, acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, Pneumonitis Carnii (including prevention).

2. Urinary Tract Infections: Acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection.

3. Gastro-intestinal tract infections: Bacillary Dysentery, cholera, as adjunction to fluid and electrolyte replacement shigellosis traveller’s diarrhoea, nocardiosis, toxoplasmosis.

4. Protozoal Infections: Malaria due to P. Falciparum.

5. Skin and Soft Tissue: Furuncles, abscesses and infected wounds

6. Genital Tract Infections: Chancroid, Salpingitis, Gonorrhoea including oropharyngeal and ano-rectal, Granuloma inguinale (vancreum).

7. Other Bacterial Infections: Septicaemia due to sensitive organisms, mycetoma, acute and chronic osteomyelitis, brucellosis.



Loxaprim should be administered with food or drink. This is to reduce the possibilities of gastrointestinal disturbance.

Children 6 weeks – 5 months 2.5ml (measure) every 12 hours
Children 6 months – 5 years 5ml (measure) every 12 hours
Children 6-12 years 10mI (measure) every 12 hours
Adults Two tablets every 12 hours



Gonorrhoea: In uncomplicated cases 4 tablets every 12hrs for 2 days or 5 tablets followed by a further 5 tablets 8 hours later or 10 tablets once daily for 3 days. With poor patient compliance a single dose of 8 tablets taken under supervision could be employed.


Pneumonitis Carnii


20mg of trimethoprim and 100mg of sulphamethoxazole per kg body weight per day in two or more divided doses for two weeks.




Standard dosage for the duration of the period at risk.

160mg trimethoprim/800mg sulphamethoxazole for7 days.

320mg trimethoprim/ 1600mg sulphamethoxazole per day in 2 divided doses 3 times on alternate days.


Acute Brucellosis


A higher than standard dosage should be used initially and treatment continued for a period of at least 4 weeks and may be repeated.


Prophylaxis of recurrent or suppression of chronic infection

A nightly dose of 2mg trimethoprim and 10mg of sulphamethoxazole per kg of body weight. Treatment may continue for as long as appropriate.



Standard dosage should be taken for 10- 15 days.


Granuloma inguinale

Standard dosage should be taken for up to 2 weeks.



Co-trimoxazole is contra-indicated in infants under 6 weeks. It should not be given to patients with history of sulphonamides or trimethoprim hypersensitivity. It is also contra-indicated in patients showing marked liver parenchymal damage, hepatic or renal failure. Caution is advised in folate deficiency patients and patients receiving pyrimethamine or immunosuppressive therapy.



Hypersensitivity reactions particularly involving the skin are among the most common adverse effects caused by Co-trimoxazole and are usually due to the sulphonamide component. The Steven-Johnsons syndrome have been reported in patients receiving Co-trimoxazole. Hypersensitivity reactions also include rashes, photosensitivity reactions, exfoliative dermatitis and nephrotoxic reactions, Lumbar pain, haematuria, oligouria and anuria may also occur due to crystallisation in the urine of sulphamethoxazole component of Co-trimaxazole or its less acetylated metabolite.

Blood disorders have occasionally occurred during co-trimoxazole administration and include agranulocytosis, aplastic anaemia, thrombocytopenia, leucopenia, hypoprothrombinaemia eosinophilia. Acute haemolytic anaemia is a rare complication which may be associated with glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

Other adverse effect include syndrome resembling serum sickness, hepatotoxic reactions, myocarditis, pancreatitis, pulmonary eosinophilia and vasculitis including polyarteritis nodosa. Other adverse reactions include optic neuropathy or transcient myopia, fever, hypothyroidism and neuroplogical reactions including ataxia, dizziness, fatigue, headache, insomnia, peripheral neuritis and vertigo. Pseudomembraneous colitis can occur in prolonged use of Co-trimoxazole.



Concurrent use with rifampicin results in shortening of the plasma half-life of trimethoprim after a period of one week. Co-trimoxazole potentiates the anticoagulant activity of warfarin via stereo-selective inhibition of metabolism. Sulphamethoxazole may displace warfarin from plasma-albumin protein-binding sites in vitro.

Co-trimoxazole prolongs the half-life of phenytoin if administered concurrently and the physician should be alert for increased phenytoin effect. Patients treated with Co-trimoxazole and cyclosporin following transplantation could experience deterioration in renal function.

Patients receiving antifolate drugs such as methotrexate should receive folate supplement.





Store below 25°C and protect from light.

Shake suspension thoroughly before use.


Manufactured by

May & Baker Nigeria Plc

1, May & Baker Avenue, Off Idiroko Road,

(Opposite Covenant University)

Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria.


Gvither Artemether and Lumefantrine Tablets

Gvither™ Tablets

(Artemether + Lumefantrine Tablets)



Gvither 20/120 Tablets

Each film coated tablet contains

Artemether 20mg

Lumefantrine 120mg

Excipients q.s.

Colour: Tartrazine & Titanium Dioxide


Gvither PIus 40/240 Tablets

Each film coated tablet contains:

Artemether 40 mg

Lumefantrine 240 mg

Excipients q.s.

Colour : Tartrazine & Titanium Dioxide


Gvither PIus 80/480 Tablets

Each film coated tablet contains:

Artemether 80 mg

Lumefantrine 480 mg

Excipients q.s.

Colour : Tartrazine & Titanium Dioxide



Artemether is the most active derivate of the Artemisinines, a new class of antimalarial drugs derived from Artemisinin. The latter compound is extracted from the plant Artemisia Annua and Artemether is prepared semi-synthetically.

Lumefantnne is a synthetic aryl amino alcohol similar to mefloquine and halofantrine.




Both components of Gvither 20/120 Tablets / Gvither Plus 40/240 Tablets/ Gvither Plus 80/480 Tablets have their own action site in the malarial parasite. The presence of the endoperioxide bridge in Artemether (generating singlet oxygen and free radicals: those are very cytotoxic to the plasmodia) appears to be essential for antimalarial activity. Morphological changes of the parasitic membranes induced by Artemether have been described, being the result of free- radical action. Lumefantrine interferes more in the polymerization processes. Other in vitro test suggests that both cause a marked diminution of nucleic acid synthesis. Inhibition of protein synthesis as the basic mechanism of action is suggested in studies which showed morphological changes in ribosomes as well as in the endoplasmic reticulum. Although Artemether acts essentially as a blood schizonticide, Gvither 20/120 Tablets / Gvither Plus 40/240 Tablets / Gvither Plus 80/480 Tablets did clear gametocytes in comparative clinical trials.



Orally administered Artemether is rapidly absorbed reaching therapeutic levels within 60-90 minutes. Artemether is metabolized in the liver to the demethylated derivate dihydroartemisinin (DHA). The elimination is rapid, with a T1/2 of 2-4 hours. Dihydroartemisinin, being a potent antimalarial itself, has a T1/2 of about 2- 4 hours. The degree of binding to plasma proteins varied markedly according to the species studied. The binding of Artemether with plasma protein in man is about 50%.

Radioactivity distribution of Artemether was found to be equal between cells and plasma. The absorption of Lumefantrine is highly influenced by lipids and food intake (from 10% by fasten to 100% at normal diet). Therefore parents should be encouraged to give the medication with some fatty food as soon as it can be tolerated.

Lumefantrine is N-debutylated in human liver microsomes. This metabolite has 5 to 8 fold higher antiparasitic effects than lumefantrine. Lumefantrine is found to be highly protein bound (95%). The elimination half life in malaria attaint patients will be 4 to 6 days. Lumefantrine and his metabolities are found in bile and faeces.



Gvither 20/120 Tablets / Gvither Plus 40/240 Tablets / Gvither Plus 80/480 Tablets is contraindicated in individuals hypersensitive to Artemether and Lumefantrine. Therefore, there are no strict contra-indications for the use of Artemether in children. Nevertheless, no correlation has been found between QTc interval prolongation and plasma concentrations of lumefantrine caution is advised to patients who are taking drugs that are known to prolong the QT interval, such as certain antibiotics (macrolides, fluoroquinolones, imidazole) or who are predisposed to cardiac arrhythmias. It is advisable not to use drugs during pregnancy but in view of the high risk of malaria during pregnancy for mother and foetus, the responsible physician may consider it essential, as in the case of cerebral malaria, to treat a pregnant woman. Artemisinin derivatives like Artemether are the fastest acting schizontocides and rapid clearance of parasites is essential. Since Gvither 20/120 Tablets / Gvither Plus 40/240 Tablets / Gvither Plus 80/480 Tablets has been designed for its use in children it is unlikely that this problem arises. Gvither 20/120 Tablets / Gvither Plus 40/240 Tablets / Gvither Plus 80/480 Tablets should not be taken during breast-feeding. Due to the long elimination half-life of lumefantrine, it is recommended that breast-feeding should not start until at least one week after stopping an Artemether/ Lumefantrine combination treatment.



Treatment of malaria including multidrug resistant strains of P. falciparum.



Gvither 20/120 Tablets

Weight in Kg Total Tablets Dosage Regimen
Day 1 Day 2 Day 3
0 Hour 8 Hours 24 Hours 36 Hours 48 Hours 60 Hours
5-14 6 1 1 1 1 1 1
15-24 12 2 2 2 2 2 2
25-34 18 3 3 3 3 3 3
35-and more (Adults) 24 4 4 4 4 4 4

Gvither 40/240 Tablets

Weight in Kg Total Tablets Dosage Regimen
Day 1 Day 2 Day 3
0 Hour 8 Hours 24 Hours 36 Hours 48 Hours 60 Hours
15-24 6 1 1 1 1 1 1
25-34 9
35-and more (Adults) 12 2 2 2 2 2 2

Gvither Plus 80/480 Tablets

Weight in Kg Total Tablets Dosage Regimen
Day 1 Day 2 Day 3
0 Hour 8 Hours 24 Hours 36 Hours 48 Hours 60 Hours
35kg and above 6 1 1 1 1 1 1

Second dose to be taken after 8 hours of first dose.

Better taken with food especially fatty meal.

Breastfeeding: Data on excretion in breast milk are not available for humans.



Specific negative drug drug interactions were not seen. Artemether potentialises the antimalarial activity of other antimalarials.

As grapefruit juice retards the metabolism of some antimalarials, it would be better not to drink grapefruit juice while taking Gvither 20/120 Tablets / Gvither Plus 40/240 Tablets / Gvither Plus 80/480 Tablets.



With Artemether virtually no side effect have been seen. Laboratory abnormalities such so slight rise in transaminanes and a decrease in reticulocyte count are rare and transient. A lowering of sinus frequency without causing ECG changes has been noticed. At high doses transient abdominal pain, tinnitus and diarrhea have been described but a causal relationship is unclear.

Some antimalarials as halofantrine and quinine can influence the ECG pattern. Attention should be made to patients previously treated with those antimalarials. A reasonable period should be taken in account before to start a treatment with lumefantrine combinations. For those patients physicians will be prescribed Artemisinin derivatives in mono therapy in cause of severe paludism.

Sometimes it could be possible that the following common side effect occur: rash, check this with your doctor. Other common side effects may occur as trouble of sleeping, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, coughing. They need medical attention when persisting.



Resistance of Plasmodia to artemether has not been observed. It is also unlikely to occur in view of the specific mechanism of action which is very cytotoxic for Plasmodia (opening of a peroxide bridge). An apparent resistance is sometimes seen but is mainly due to multiple broods of plasmodia developing at different times in the same patient.

In controlled studies recrudescence does not exceed 10%. In case of recrudescence (renal or apparent) a new complete treatment for three days is advisable.



Gvither 20/120 Tablets Each carton contains blisters of 3 x 8 Tablets.

Gvither Plus 40/240 Tablets Each carton contains blisters of 2 x 6 Tablets.

Gvither Plus 80/480 Tablets – Each carton contains blisters of 1 x 6 Tablets.






2 Years from the Date of Manufacturing.


NAFDAC REG. No: A4-6730


Marketed by


3, Okunfolami Street, Anthony Village, Lagos.


Manufactured by



Factory: 10, Dewan Udyog Nagar,

Aliyali, Paighar, Maharaohtra -401 404, INDIA.


Registered Office: 102, Hyde Park,

Saki Vihar Road, Andheri (E), Mumbai -400 072, INDIA.